Literature and its mediation played a major part in the "invention of the nation": Language and culture were placed at the service of national unity and at the same time acted as a means of excluding everything that was perceived as "different" or "unclean". The book shows how literature resists this appropriation. It draws attention to the development of "transcultural literatures": migration literature, minority literature and postcolonial literature that address global issues, are formally hybrid and are characterized by language changes or literary multilingualism. Children's and youth literature, pop culture and trivial art are also discussed. Based on the "Poétique du Divers" by the Caribbean writer Édouard Glissant, Werner Wintersteiner calls for a reorientation of literature didactics in the sense of intercultural education that takes into account the change from national to transcultural paradigms.